Sunday, January 22, 2012

Tamazightinou: السنة الأمازيغية الجديدة

Tamazightinou: السنة الأمازيغية الجديدة: Voila une autre emission sur Yenyer ( le novel an amazigh) and la culture et la langue Tamazight au Nord Afrique.

السنة الأمازيغية الجديدة

Voila une autre emission sur Yenyer ( le novel an amazigh) and la culture et la langue Tamazight au Nord Afrique.

Friday, January 20, 2012

Amazigh film Tazzit

 un tres bon film Tazzit qui revients au debut de protocterats francais au Maroc en 1917 et qui montre a quel point les imazighnes du Maroc en general et les imazighnes du SUD EN PARTiculier  defendent la Terre de Tamazgha.Il s defendaient aussi la tardition  la langue et la culture du Maroc qu i est  Tamazight.Un bon film a ne pas ratter. des grands stars imazighn de Souss on participe a realiser ce bon film.L resistance amazigh contre l occupation francaise.et aussi la lutre pour reserver leur langue et culture contre les francais.

Sunday, January 15, 2012

un bon debat sur medsat TV sur la culture Amazigh

Voila un bon debat sur La culture amazigh sur medsat TV.. BRAVO LES JEUNES .Tamazight culture reste un pliier tres riche dans la culture marocaine. sans tamazight le maroc reste un pays indicape dans sa culture.
 programe de medsat TV

Monday, January 2, 2012

Tamazightinou: Tamazgha Celebrates Yennayer 2962

Tamazightinou: Tamazgha Celebrates Yennayer 2962: Let us first mention how some scholars explain the inception of the Amazigh calendar. According to them, the origin of Yennayer refe...

Tamazgha Celebrates Yennayer 2962

     Let us first mention how some scholars explain the inception of the Amazigh calendar. According to them, the origin of Yennayer refers to the first mention of Amazigh people in historical records: the founding by Amazigh Pharaoh Sheshonq I of the 22nd pharaonic dynasty in 958 BC, followed by the 23rd and 24th Amazigh pharaonic dynasties, over 200 years (958 BC-712 BC) of Amazigh rule in ancient Egypt. According to ancient Egyptian historian Manetho (3rd century BC) and archeological records, Amazigh Pharaonic dynasties brought back stability to Egypt by reunifying it and defending it against foreign invasion from the East.
In summary, Yennayer 2962 that we will celebrate this year commemorates the first mention of the Amazigh people in history. Significantly, it refers to Imazighen as the contributors to the glorious Egyptian civilization. 13 January corresponds to the end of armed conflict between Imazighen and the Egyptian pharaohs.
Here are some few traditions related to the celebration of Yennayer (on January 13th) in some areas of the large land of Tamazghra as they had been described at the beginning of the twentieth century by some French ethnographers since our ancestors didn’t keep records of their practices and since these traditions are unfortunately in the process of disappearing if nobody act efficiently in order to save them.
The festivities are strictly a family affair involving specific dishes. Couscous with chicken is the predominant dish, which embodies the whole symbolism of the event. Nowadays, the celebration -when it takes place- is limited to a special meal like, usually prepared in a household with elderly members or to a party usually initiated by young active members of Amazigh movements in urban societies where most of Imazighen evolve today.
Yennayer should be an occasion to learn more about the cultural background of our ancestors, and to make every effort to transmit this heritage to the young generation that hardly speaks and cares about its significance.
Celebrating Yennayer could also be a step to affirm a fundamental cultural aspect of Imazighen and further more an attempt to revise or reappraise the official historiography.
The Agraw.com members accustomed to attend celebrations organized by some Amazigh association in Huceima and Nador and documenting the event.

Tamazightinou: North Africans may have beaten Celts to Ireland

Tamazightinou: North Africans may have beaten Celts to Ireland: When the Celts landed in Ireland 2,500 years ago, they may have been met by a population of North Africans, scientists now believe, write...

Tamazightinou: North Africans may have beaten Celts to Ireland

Tamazightinou: North Africans may have beaten Celts to Ireland: When the Celts landed in Ireland 2,500 years ago, they may have been met by a population of North Africans, scientists now believe, write...

Sunday, January 1, 2012

Discrimination of Amazigh Music in Studio 2M

2M, a Moroccan channel, remains a racist channel. Even if the decision makers always say that Tamazight will have its full rights in the media, the facts are proving the opposite.
Abdellah BOUZANDAG, the singer of Tafsut Band was recently a victim of this discrimination by 2M channel. In a competition program called Studio 2M, the participation of Bouzandag was not accepted in the 3 stage of the competition in Agadir (South of Morocco) just because he sings in his mother tongue Tamazight. Moreover, the application form to be filled by participants indicates that the candidate has just two choices not more: Arab Songs and Occidental songs, they excluded Amazigh music even if more than the half of the population speak Tamazight.
Tafsut is a band created in 2004 by some Amazigh activists in Agadir (Morocco) since then TAFSUT participated in many festivals and concerts transmitting its noble messages of peace freedom, justice, human rights.
Here is a live short clip from a live concert of Tafsut band playing the song

Submited by Ahiyad Abaraz

5 000 years ago, Imazighen

The name of the Libyans is registred in the oldest documents of – Egyptian historie , towards 3.000 before J.C, perhaps even before this date and the Libyans, today Imazighen, have an old history of more than five thousand years
Téhénou, Lybian, Imazighen
The country of the Libyans was called Tehenou among Egyptians. This designation is a little arbitrary, we only know about the T-h-n-w consonants; because the Egyptians did not wrote the vowels (like Touareg today). Only one “Libyan” could be named Teheni and several other Teheniou (in Egyptian: T-h-n-y-w).
We employ the name Libyans to indicate all the Berber or Imazighen of -antiquity which were near -Egypte. There was also a particular tribe: The Libou whose -appellation had been generalized by the Greeks of Cyrénaïque so that we in general speak today about the Libyans without reference to tribe.
It would be more correct calling the Berber ones by their name, namely Amazigh in the singular and Imazighen in the plural, witch mean the “free people” or the “noble ones”, because the name of Barbari relates in the -Antiquity with the people which spoke neither Greek, nor Latin. Also people which had a high civilization, like the Egyptians, Babyloniens or Perses were of Barbari to the eyes of the Romans.
Here is four documents:
The pallet of king Scorpion
The first document mentioning Libya is a pallet fragment of schist from king “Scorpion”, one of the predecessors of king Menés who reigned little before 3.000 before J.C.

The surface is divided into four horizontal bands whose first line is filled with oxen, the second with a row donkeys and the third with sheep. The fourth band is filled with a row of trees and a hieroglyphic group composed of the sign meaning “foreign ground” in which one planted a curved stick, arms of the Libyans. The whole is read Tehenou “ground of the Libyans”. It s the oldest known document to date in Egyptian writing. The name of the king that one can translate NR, “fish” and MR., “chisel” is written in a serekh, ancestor of the cartouche.
The whole represents, after Georg MOLLER, the spoils brought back by king “Scorpion” from a victorious forwarding against the country of Tehenou where there were oxen, donkeys, sheep and trees.
The ivory cylinder of -Hiéraconpolis
The small ivory cylinder bears the name of king Narmer, known by his famous schist pallet preserved at the Museum of Cairo.
Our document coming from -Hiéraconpolis, l-ancian Nekhen, 85 km in the south of Louxor, comprise three lines of bearded prisoners that the king terrace. The group in the middle, a curious mixture of symbolic writing system and hieroglyphic is perfectly readable: “the god Horus is alive. King Narmer, protected by the goddess “Vulture” from -Elkab city conquered the country of Tehenou and kills the prisoners ”
The pallet of king Narmer
This votive pallet in black schist is preserved at the Museum of Cairo, finely worked, it has a 64 cm height. Two lines horizontrales divide the surface of the back into three unequal parts.

All in top we see two heads of the goddess Hathor with horns and ears of cow, goddess of the sky. In the middle, a diagrammatic drawing of the royal palate in which is writen the name of the king. A “silure” is read nar and a “chisel” means sea, which gives Narmer.
The part in the middle shows the king, standing, carrying the crown of High-Egypt, embanking an enemy with a bludgeon, it is a perforated stone ball through which one passed a stick. The short clothing, maintained by only one strap and a belt with frangues of which an animal tail hangs, leaves most of its body naked. Behind him, a servant carries his sandals.

In front of the king, the Horus god in the form of a falcon brings to him prisoners of the country of papyrus: the Delta. All in bottom we see two enemies escaping, designated by two hiéroglyphes difficult to interpret.
The recto of the pallet is divided into four bands. One sees all in top the heads of the Hathor goddess with the palate of the king. Below, the king who carries the red crown of Low Egypt, between two servants, preceded by four men carrying of symbols posed on long stems, in front of 10 enemies whose cutted head is placed between their legs.
In the medium, two panthers whose exaggeratedly long necks intertwines to form in the middle a round hollow where the make-up was ground. All in bottom, a bull, probably the king, destroyed an enemy fortress with blows of horns. This pallet enables us to specify l-importance of the king. Work is of an extreme smoothness, astonishing for the time. The long interlaced necks is of mesopotamic origin.
Libyans of the country of Tehenou

The following document is much more recent. It dates from the reign of king Sahourê, second king of the fifth dynasty (2442-2430 before J.C). A copy of the relief is in the funerary temple d-un another king, Phiops II, from the sixth dynasty (2221-2157 before J-C).
It is a relief carried out carefully in the best tradition of Egyptian art. It includes eight superimposed bands. In top, the Seshat goddess, mistress of writing, note the number of the prisoners and the cattle which the king had brought back of the country of Tehenou.
The remainders of scenery from the first band had to show the king embanking the Libyan head, traditional scene. Its close relations spoke to Sahourê (nonvisible) and implre its leniency. The following bands show us the captured cattle: more than 123 400 oxen, 223 400 asses, 32 413 caprine and 243 688 sheep.
Other Libyan tribes
At side of the Libyans of Tehenou whom we know through Egyptian representations, there was also Temehou, with which they should not be confused. The first representation that we had of this tribe comes from the tomb of king Sethos Ier in the Valley of the Kings (1303-1290 before J-C.) they were fair-haired, had the blue eyes and the clear skin, they carried a long coat, open on the front, and with ostrich feathers in the hair.
Thereafter the names of the tribes multiply. In the Ramesside time we meet Libou or Libyans, Meshwesh or Mâ, Qeheq mentioned under Ramses II and Ramses III as well as Isebeten. This last name corresponds to that of Isebeten, old tribe from Hoggar which was unaware of the metals use and still lived in stone age when the current ancestors of Touareg penetrated in the country. A fraction of Isebeten joined to Dag Ghali, a Targui tribe which still have hunting rights in the Hoggar. Old Isebeten were also hunters.
Then there were Baqal, Qeyqesh, Mehesoun, perhaps Massules of the Romans, and Païat of the copt texts. Hérodote (towards 450 before J-C.) gives us a whole list of Libyan tribes living west -Egypte.
Rise of Lybian in ancient -Egypte
The Libyans enter —Egypte historie like enemies, like invaders. This is perhaps not exact with regard to the province of Fayoum which seems always Libyan before being integrated into the kingdom of -Egypte under Sésostris II (towards 1897-1878 before J.C).
To strike the country of Tehenou was an act whose several kings glorified themselves. Indeed, the Libyans of the small oases could not measure themselves with the Egyptians, by far higher in number. If Sahourê brings back a rich booty from the country of Tehenou, it s- certainly from Fayoum, oasis in which was a lake, today Birkat Qâroun, which still had the name: shet Temeh “lake of Libyans” under the 12th dynasty(HOLSCHER 1937: p. 49).
If the Libyans were often overcome during their first contacts with the Egyptians, their courage had to impress the latter, because one finds them starting from the New Empire like soldiers in the Egyptian army and even as officers. Mes en Mâ “master of the Meshwesh” was the title for high row officer. Thereafter the Libyans reach even the kingdom. Two of the 30 dynasties were of Libyan origin, the 22e and 23e (946-720 before J-C.) and their kings was called Sheshenq, Osorkon and Takeloth (comp. the name of T-K-L-HT in a numidic inscription).
With considering the examined documents, we note that Imazighen or Berber historie begins even with the threshold of Egyptian -historie, towards 3 000 before J.C, and not tardily with the Greeks or the Romans and even less with the Arabs.
In these documents, it s always about the country of Tehenou, Libya in the direction of the Greek historians, witch means the countries located west of -Egypte. The inhabitants was the Teheniou in Egyptian or hatiou-â N Tehenou, “princes of Libye”. This last denomination points out the proper name of the nation, Imazighen which also means the free men or the noble ones.
Marie Boudarène after Werner Vycichl / Translated by Sifaks U Rave
source: kabyles.com

Tamazightinou: The War with Jugurtha

Tamazightinou: The War with Jugurtha: After the destruction of Carthage, the most important kingdom in Africa was Numidia. It contained a number of flourishing towns which wer...

The War with Jugurtha

After the destruction of Carthage, the most important kingdom in Africa was Numidia. It contained a number of flourishing towns which were centers of a considerable commerce. Masinissa, the loyal Roman ally from the Punic Wars, left this kingdom to his son Micipsa. The latter had two sons and a nephew, Jugurtha. Jugurtha was a brilliant and ambitious young man, who had served under Scipio in the Spanish Numantine war, and returned to Africa steeped in honors. Gaining a deep knowledge of Roman military tactics and, due to his legionary service, a large number of friendly contacts within Rome and her Senate, Jugurtha was in a prime position to obtain power. He was named joint heir with his cousins to the kingdom of Numidia. Micipsa died soon after and Jugurtha took matters into his own hands, murdering one of his rival cousins, Hiempsal. He then claimed the whole kingdom of Numidia and launched an attack on his other cousin, Adherbal, who immediately appealed to Rome for help.
Commissioners from Rome were sent to investigate, but Jugurtha cleverly used his influence with various Roman families, and large bribes, to secure support for his position. The envoys returned home without accomplishing anything aside from a loose division of Numidia into two kingdoms between Jugurtha and Adherbal. Jugurtha, however, pressed his advantage and moved against Adherbal anyway. A new delegation was sent to stop the attack but Jugurtha ignored it, and besieged Adherbal in his capital, Cirta. Unfortunately for Jugurtha, Adherbal was heavily reliant on Italian residents of the African nation as the main part of his defense and attacks causing harm to Romans and their allies would surely come to be noticed in Rome. Another senatorial commission, headed by M. Aemilius Scaurus, summoned Jugurtha to stop the attack but once again he pressed on. In 112 BC Adherbal was eventually forced to surrender and he was savagely tortured to death. To make matters worse, Jugurtha not only defied Rome with his attack in the first place, but he put the surviving Italian defenders to the sword.
Due to Jugurtha’s wide-spread political contacts and bribery, Rome was still slow to react. After much consternation war was finally declared and L. Calpurnius Bestia, along with M. Aemilius Scaurus, led an army into Africa. Peace was quickly reached however, with little damage to Jugurtha, and new allegations of scandal and bribery echoed throughout Rome. One Tribune of the Plebs, Memmius, led the assault on those who may have been pocketing Numidian gold. He passed a law ordering one of the praetors to bring Jugurtha directly to Rome to be interviewed, under a safe-conduct provision. Jugurtha safe in his position certainly in part due to pre-arranged political maneuvering he agreed to be brought before the Senate. When he arrived however, in essence to reveal those whom he had bribed another tribune vetoed the entire arrangement, rendering Jugurtha free to go without the necessity to finger the men in his political pockets. Clearly buoyed by the Roman political stalement and feeling invulnerable to the corrupt Roman courts, Jugurtha arranged an assassination attempt on another cousin before returning to Africa. However, the assassins were caught and Jugurtha’s involvement uncovered, further soiling his reputation, but Jugurtha had long since arrived in his own country.
Rome reacted quickly this time and declared war once again. In 110 BC, Sp. Postumius Albinus led the attack, but was forced to leave his brother Aulus in command, while he attended to personal matters. Aulus, while laying siege to a Numidian town, was completely surprised and surrounded by Jugurthine forces. Apprantly targets of more bribery, the Romans were forced to surrender and agreed to leave Numidia within ten days. Back in Rome, the reaction was violent. Cries of scandal, bribery and incompetence were running rampant. Roman armies were losing to a petty client King without even shedding blood, while the commanders were coming home defeated but rich. The common people, still angry with the Senate for its treatment of the Gracchi, were outraged by this complete lack of Senatorial capability. To top matters off, the Germanic Cimbri and Teutones were on the move in Illyria and Southern Gaul running rampant over the Roman Legions in their way.
In 109 BC, the Senate turned to an old line family of much prestige. The nephew of Metellus Macedonicus, conquerer of Macedonia, was sent to take the war to Jugurtha. Quintus Caecilius Metellus, was a better general and less corruptible Roman than his predecessors, but after 2 years in the field did little but to gain some minor victories. Metellus’ chief subordinate, Gaius Marius, a new man from Arpinum, was a brilliant and able young soldier. Frustrated by lack of success under the command of Metellus, Marius decided to run for the consulship himself. A Plebeian hadn’t been elected to the consulship in well over a century, but the people were angry with the Senate and looked to a new man to change the course of events. Running on a platform of opposition to Patrician corruption and failures, and despite many objections from the aristocrats, Marius was elected to the first of seven total consulships, in 107 BC.
With the election of Marius, Metellus was recalled, and given the honor of a triumph by the Senate (a completely political motivated event). Additionally, despite his complete lack of success, he was awarded the agnomen of Numidicus for ‘conquering’ Numidia. Marius free of the incompetence of his predecessor then set to work reorganizing and training his army. With losses to the Germanic tribes in Gaul and Illyria, Marius was forced to enlist volunteers from among the head count of Rome. He forever altered the political and military landscape, and paved the way for a professional, non land-owning army, in which the urban poor would have opportunities within the army. Additionalyl men of higher social rank but little wealth took the opportunity to join with Marius as well. One of these men, Lucius Cornelius Sulla, would prove to be Marius’ greatest rival in later years, and one of the most famous names of the Late Republic.
In less than 2 years, with near constant victories over a widely spread territory, Marius soon conquered all of the Numidian strongholds. Bocchus, King of Mauretania, and ally of Jugurtha, was growing ever more concerned over the impending approach of Marius and his army. Learning that the Romans were willing to negotiate to end the war, Sulla was sent to treat with the King. A plot was hatched whereby Bocchus would betray his ally, Jugurtha, to the Romans in exchange for peaceful coexistence. Jugurtha was captured and handed over to Sulla, according to plan, who then took his captive to Marius. In 105 BC, the war was over and Marius was honored as victor due to his command, despite claims by Sulla to have been responsible for the capture. This event would mark the beginning of a long-standing rivalry between the two men that would end in violence and murder, many years later. Jugurtha, meanwhile, was sent to Rome to await his death during Marius’ triumph. This triumph would be long delayed, however, as the Consul would be forced to save Rome from the serious threat of Germanic Cimbri and Teuton invasion.
Source: Unrv.com

North Africa in Antiquity

The Amazigh origins and the early formations of cities and kingdoms demonstrate a problem common in newly formed states, the need for a clear principle of succession. Major problems arise because of the lack of a method of succession and it proves to be their downfall. The attempts to Romanize North Africa though very influential on the culture, eventually fail and after being governed by Carthaginian, Roman, Vandal and then Byzantine governments, a reversion to the indigenous tribal structures takes place.
The Origins of the Amazigh lies in the Capsian stone industries of the eastern Maghreb or modern southern Tunisia. The Wet period after 7000 BCE allowed for this area to be inhabited by a population composed of various racial elements. The increase in productivity of the land allowed for population growth and a subsequent western expansion. Amazigh languages are all strikingly similar, suggesting a uniform movement of peoples in a relatively short period of time.
Around 3000 BCE contacts with the Mediterranean islands begin and by 1000 BCE North Africa is not very different from the rest of the Western Mediterranean. Most communities were farmers with a strong pastoral element in their economy and fairly elaborate cemeteries. By this time Amazigh languages were established throughout North Africa but there’s no evidence of how this took place. The population at this time is a range of Mediterranean types.
The Sahara and the Garamantes were a Neolithic civilization combining fishing and stock raising. They were Negroid peoples with a pastoral economy. Domestication of the horse gave Mediterranean groups in North Africa greater mobility. New technology and a stratified society allowed them to subjugate the existing black population, who had been put under stress by the drying out of the Sahara. A Warrior aristocracy subsequently gained ascendancy over the black groups of the Sahara.
The foundation of Carthage by the Phoenicians made a lasting cultural impact on the northern Maghreb. By 310 BCE Carthage controlled much of Northern Tunisia employing rich estates and slaves. By the third century a full-fledged empire was established, controlling much of Tunisia and eastern Algeria. The empire’s effect on the population was a process of emulation and competition, which slowly transformed Amazigh society.
The reaction to the growing territorial consolidation of Carthage was the formation of larger territorial entities by the Amazigh. The Carthaginians named them Numidians. The Numidians divided themselves into three kingdoms without significant influence from elsewhere: the kingdoms of Massyli, Masaesyli and Mauri. The Mauri’s in modern Morocco were ruled by king Baga, but the largest of the kingdoms was Masaesyli, covering the northern half of modern Algeria, ruled by Syphax. His ruling cities were Siga (W. Algeria) and Cirta ( E. Algeria)
Massyli was ruled by Gaia in a territory south of Constantine and all the way to the Tunisian coast at Gabes down to the lesser Syrtis. At this time there are contacts with the Greek world. Syphax ( Masaesyli) and Masinissa ( son of Gaia, king of Massyli) played important roles in the second Punic War. The Romans and Carthaginians realized their importance as well. Syphax and Masinissa both fought for the Romans, yet against each other, Masinissa generally losing.
Syphax eventually marries Sophonisba (daughter of a Punic general) and establishes an alliance with the Carthaginians, putting the two kingdoms formally at odds. Masinissa is eventually victorious alongside the Romans. He annexes eastern half of Masaelyi, and his territory becomes known as Numidia.
The Numidian landscape is composed of villages, mixed farming, and paying tribute, which is the only real connection between villages and the monarchy. The bulk of their cities were coastal and their main market language was Punic. Tribal social structures remained strong.
The royal cult of Baal Hammon was mainly for royal court, while a vast number of local gods were for the tribes of the Hellenistic Kings. The cult of the dead is a distinguishing characteristic of the Amazigh in antiquity. They connected their dead with notions of fertility of the soil and control of the future. Tombs had special rooms in them for sleeping because they believed that dreams of those who slept in their tombs were responses from the dead. These tombs were major monuments to Amazigh kings.
A Large number of inscriptions with the Libyan alphabet emerge at this time. Libyan language and script soon comes into its own as a form of expression.
The whole of North Africa was absorbed by the Roman Empire through struggle. The Jugurthian War demonstrates essential characteristics of Amazigh military resistance. They utilized Roman techniques alongside Numidian cavalry and guerilla tactics. By 146 BCE Rome annexed Carthage’s territories, creating the province of Africa.
Masinissa’s son Micipsa left his kingdom to two sons and a nephew. The nephew, Jugurtha, kills one cousin and in the course of attacking the other, upsets the Romans. Rome declares war on Jugurtha, who flees to the Gaetuli. There, his father in law Bocchus hands him over to the Romans.
In the course of the war, Romans terrorized the countryside. Massacres and the sale of entire female populations of the cities into slavery needless to say, did not leave a good impression of the Romans on the Numidian population.
Following Jugurtha was his brother Gauda, Gauda’s son Hiempsal II, and Hiempsall’s son Juba II. The kingdom in the meantime remained relatively prosperous. By 46 BCE Juba II was defeated by Caesar. His territory is divided and when Bocchus II willed Mesopotamia to Octavian in 33 BCE, most of North Africa was in Roman control.
Mauritania is eventually given to Juba II. Cleopatra Selene (daughter of Cleopatra and Mark Anthony) becomes his wife and they rule over a Hellenistic kingdom consisting of royal tombs, a cult of Isis, capital- roman town planning, widespread use of slaves (with Greek names). Although slavery did not survive because it was ill adapted to the tribal economic structures of Caesaria’s territory. His kingdom lacked any reference to its indigenous culture and in response there were revolts to his rule.
The Gaetulian’s rebelled against Juba II’s submission to Rome. They consistently resisted them through armed rebellion and refusal to pay taxes. In 17 CE Tacfarinas, a Musulamian chief, led uprisings against Rome. Joined by the Gaetulians, Mauris and Cinithians, the entire southern border of North Africa was in revolt. Working in the favor of the rebels was the incompetency of King Ptolemy. When Caligula murders Ptolemy, the last of the Amazigh kingdoms ends.
Roman policy was to co-opt tribal leaders and through them control the tribe. Chiefs co-operated because it offered them a chance at Roman citizenship and it privatized tribal land. Landlords had more coercive power under Roman rule while, of course, peasants had little change in lifestyle.
Auxiliary units of Numidian cavalry allowed for status and possibility of Roman citizenship. This kept the indigenous cultural aspect of fighting intact.
Within the structure of Roman Africa, all segments of society (excluding any slaves) had positive inducement to cooperate with the new order. Tribal structures persisted through the empire and Rome had become a source of legitimization even on its periphery where it didn’t effectively control. Tribal leaders used Roman adornments and iconography to acquire and maintain power.
Soon, Mauritania, Southern Numidia, and Tripolitania were shaken by raiding parties and revolts. Aggression continued into the late empire and created insecurity throughout the countryside. By 300 CE, wealth becomes more concentrated. Art and design become more materially brilliant. And in 429-440 CE, the Vandals come to power. Mountain and pre-desert areas escaped control after the conquest with the periphery mostly in the hands of tribal chiefs.
With the Byzantine reconquest in 530 CE, a huge step backward is taken. The Greek language is implemented. There is no more urban aristocracy, no local hierarchy, no administrative structure, no network of services and kinship and tribal structures re emerge as the basis of the elite.
What is clearly visible is that the indigenous methods of village administration were the Amazigh own creation. Sub-groupings and other tribal structures persisted even after the years of onslaught of foreign rule
Source: csupomona.edu

Tamazightinou: North Africans may have beaten Celts to Ireland

Tamazightinou: North Africans may have beaten Celts to Ireland: When the Celts landed in Ireland 2,500 years ago, they may have been met by a population of North Africans, scientists now believe, write...

North Africans may have beaten Celts to Ireland

When the Celts landed in Ireland 2,500 years ago, they may have been met by a population of North Africans, scientists now believe, writes Jan Battles.
Linguists say a study of Irish and other Celtic languages has produced possible evidence that when the Celts invaded Ireland and Britain there were already Afro-Asiatic speakers here. Celtic languages – Irish, Scots Gaelic and Welsh – incorporate grammatical traits found in Afro-Asiatic tongues that are otherwise unrelated, according to research published last week in Science magazine.
Other Celtic languages that were spoken in continental Europe and have since died out did not have these grammatical quirks. Afro-Asiatic languages are currently spoken in countries across Northern Africa and the Near East. This points to the possibility that there was early contact between Celtic and North African populations in the British Isles.
Orin Gensler, of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Germany, said the similarities would be explained if, when Afro-Asiatic people learnt Celtic from the new immigrants, they “perpetuated aspects of their own grammar into the new language”. Gensler has studied many grammatical features found in both Celtic and Afro-Asiatic languages. He found many of the shared features were rare in other languages.
Linguists have discovered surprising differences between Celtic languages and related languages such as French, while seeing striking resemblances between Celtic and Afro-Asiatic languages that are spoken in countries including Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria.
Gensler examined features of the languages such as the order of words in a sentence. In Gaelic and Welsh the standard sentence structure is verbsubject-object, which is a rare sequence. This is also the case in many Afro-Asiatic languages. Celtic languages that used to be spoken in continental Europe had the verb in the final or middle position.
Berniece Wuethrich, author of the Science article, said: “The only other non-linguistic evidence that could point towards this connection is in blood type, but it is not definitive. Irish and British people have different proportions of blood types to most Europeans. Where there are comparable proportions is in the Atlas mountains in Northern Africa, home of the Berber people.” Berber is a branch of the Afro-Asiatic language group.
Geneticists say there is no evidence of North African ancestors in Irish genes. “There is no particular correspondence between northwest Africa and this island but that is not to say we won t find something,” said Dr Dan Bradley of the department of genetics at Trinity College. “There is no good genetic evidence to support what the linguists are saying. You have to keep an open mind though.”
While in general clues about the identity of prehistoric inhabitants are gleaned from archeological remains and DNA, linguists say that certain elements of a language can preserve information about ancient times.
It is widely known that when the Celts invaded Ireland there were people already here. Man is first believed to have arrived on Irish shores about 9,000 years ago – the earliest-known archeological evidence for human habitation dates to 7,000BC.
Archeologists are not sure of the origins of prehistoric immigrants to Ireland. A team of scientists in Dublin and Belfast, including Bradley, is studying the genes of modern Irish people to find evidence of these origins, a project which is partly funded by the government s millennium fund.
Source: north-of-africa

Apuleius (123 A.D – 180) the Famous Berber writer

         Apuleius (123 A.D – 180) the Famous Berber writer  We cannot talk about Berber literature without referring to Apuleius who belongs to an era where literature was at the dawn of its expansion before the Renaissance comes to the world. The fact that all his work is essentially bundled in one book, does not deny his importance in the Berber literature growth. Some even consider him as the father of the novel.
His novel “ the Golden Ass “ is believed to be the first novel in the history, but that’s not our focus in here, we just want to show our readers through this article that the Berber literature is not from today as some malicious evil-intentioned authors pretend, but actually goes back to many centuries ago, thus the Berber intellectuals have existed through all the ages in the history, although in the language of the others some performed an outstanding work of genius.
The different successive military occupations in North Africa had a negative effect on the Berbers attempts to push ahead their written language. Despite the vicissitudes of the history, Berber authors had offered their culture and people the greatest service ever done, through their outstanding achievements and writings. As a Nobel Prize winner said, “The best way to help others is to write”.
Isn’t a pride for the Amazighs (Berbers) when talking about Saint Augustin, Apuleius, Juba II…? Around 123 A.D, Apuleius was born from local aristocratic Berber parents. Thus unlike the children of his age and race, he received a roman education. His elementary studies that started in his hometown Madaurus (Constantine in present Algeria) led him to the famous Carthage University and after at Athens in Greece where he studied platonic philosophy among other subjects, he also traveled to Egypt studying philosophy and religion.
In contact with different civilizations and cultures the small Berber had a lot changed, after the death of his father had interrupted his work and ceased his quest for knowledge, he went back to his hometown where he took over on his father’s wealth and became a person with an important authority. His intense interest in Carthage led him to move there and settle down to exercise his lecturer skills and broad knowledge to treat all kind of subjects, he could as well get involved in music and philosophy rather than magic, the scholars and the authorities made a sculpture depicting his influential personality in acknowledgement of his admirable and high qualities, Apuleius is really a complex and talented person with multiple professions, he was a lawyer at first and then priest, lecturer, miracle maker…polyglot able to communicate in many languages : Berber , Latin, Greek … His love for magic led some of his contemporaries to believe of being comparable to Jesus ,the great miracle maker .
Apuleius was an initiate in several cults or mysteries, including the Eleusis, Mithra, and Isis mysteries as well as the cult of Cabires to Samothrace and thousands more… of less interest. “He hoped to reveal the secret of things” said a specialist of his work. Indeed magic had a very important influence on his life and work, it was even told that his family-in-law accused him in using magic to gain attention of a wealthy widow. His major work “the Golden Ass “ consists of magical transformations and amusing stories. However magic is not the whole life of the multidisciplinary author, he also interested in philosophy, astronomy, and medicine. And his overall work shows how our man is into everything.
Apologia, Florida, Metamorphoses or Golden Ass, On the God of Socrates, On Plato and his Doctrine… This is the work of the great author that never ceases to amaze the world for centuries. It is a miracle that a Berber living under the Roman occupation had reached such a high level of merit. Not a lot known on his life and his death that remains mysterious, nobody knows neither the time nor the cause of his death. Apuleius is gone, leaving a rich and excellent work behind.
source: kabylia.info

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